Day 1 :
George Washington University, United States
Keynote: Identifying the awareness of diabetic retinopathy among the adult population in Chennai, India
Time : 10:00-10:30
Divya Sridhar has completed her MS in Applied Economics from Johns Hopkins University and an MPH from George Washington University. She is a Manager with the Project Management Professional Certification (PMP) at Deloitte and Touche, and has over six years of experience in the Federal Healthcare Industry.
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading global cause of visual impairment and blindness. Longer diabetes duration and poorer glycemic control are strongly associated with diabetic retinopathy. According to the International Diabetes Federation, there are about 41 million people with diabetes and this number is expected to rise to about 70 million by 2025. For every five years increase in duration of diabetes, the risk for diabetic retinopathy increases by approximately 1.89-fold. The purpose of this study was to identify the awareness of diabetic retinopathy among the adult population who visit the Pranav outreach clinics in Chennai (India). The Pranav clinics have partnered with Unite for Sight, a United States-based global health non-profit organization, to reduce the prevalence of preventable blindness in India. The aim of the study was to identify awareness based on gender, education level, and clinical factors, such as diabetes and eye history, via survey administration. Based on the survey results, approximately 92% of participants did not know what diabetic retinopathy was, and out of this percentage, 64% had diabetes. More than half of those who had diabetes were women. When asked how better people can understand diabetic retinopathy, 81% of participants believed visual mediums such as pamphlets with pictures on diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, and screening demos would be most effective. These results are important because targeted interventions must be implemented in rural areas within India to educate people about diabetic retinopathy and provide screening opportunities across different demographics.
University of Limoges, France
Keynote: Precancerous cervical lesions among HIV-positive women in Benin in 2017: Prevalence and determinants
Time : 11:30-12:00
Elfried Salanon is currently intern at the Institute of Epidemiology of Limoges (IENT) to complete his Master degree in Epidemiology of chronic disease from University of Limoges, France. He is an Associate Researcher at the Institute of Epidemiology, Benin. Member of the global Non communicable disease alliance; his team published many paper in reputed journals in Chronic disease (cervix cancer, Epilepsy). He is now working on the first population based study on sleep and non-communicable disease in Africa. He is developing algorithms to predict some chronic disease using sleep and physical activity level.
Background: Precancerous lesions of the cervix are common in HIV-positive and are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) in 97% of cases. Despite the high rate of HIV in Benin, the proportion of cervical pre-cancer is still unknown. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of precancerous cervical lesions and their determinants in HIV-positive women (HPW) in Benin, West Africa, 2017.
Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted from September to November, 2017. The study population was made of consenting HPW. Women with suspected precancerous lesions at Visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol, were given a cervical biopsy followed by a pathological examination. Data were analyzed using R software. The significance threshold used was 5%. Log-binomial regression was used to identify the determinants.
Results: Two hundred (200) women’s were included in the study. The median age was 35 years with an interquartile range (IQ) of [30.05-41.00]. All of these women were carriers of HIV 1. The median recent CD4 count was 335.65 IQ [170.50-384.66]. The prevalence of precancerous cervical lesions based on pathological examination in our study was 27%, 95%CI [24.10; 29.90]. Low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I) lesions accounted for 81.66% of cases. The determinants of the precancerous lesions found were severe immunosuppression (CD4 ≤ 200) with p=0.002 and absence of Cotrimoxazole treatment (p=0.026).
Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of severe immunosuppression in the development of precancerous cervical lesions in HPW. Early detection and better follow-up of HPW are needed.
University of Medicine, Albania
Time : 10:30-11:00
Enida Xhaferi is a Faculty of Medical Technical Sciences from University of Medicine, Tirana, Albania.
Background: Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease affecting axial and peripheral joints, whose prevalence correlates well with HLA B27 positivity. The prevalence of AS globally is thought to range between 0.1% and 1.4%. Inflammation of sacroiliac joints is an early clinical manifestation of this disease, and low back pain is the most common clinical symptom. Back pain is present for more than three months. Patient’s symptoms get better with exercise and deteriorate in the morning or with inactivity. Cardiac manifestations are observed in around 2-10% of patients with AS. Studies have shown that chronic inflammatory states might also cause cardiovascular disorders; important pathologies which significantly affect morbidity and mortality. Aortic root disease and valve disease, conduction disorders are the typical cardiac lesions observed in patients with AS. Pulmonary complications are also commonly reported in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Both the tracheobronchial three and lung parenchyma could be affected in these patients.
Objective: Revise the most frequent cardiac and pulmonary manifestations observed in patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and present the measures that should be taken to improve patients’ health status.
Methods: A literature review was conducted. Information regarding the most frequent cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases observed in patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis was selected and the data analysis is included below.
Results: Aortic root disease and valve disease where described by Bulkley and Roberts in 1973, who performed autopsy studies on eight patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and cardiovascular disorders. This study and others that followed, showed that - aortic root dilation, thickening and stiffening; aortic cusp thickening, retraction with presence of rolling edges; anterior mitral leaflet thickening; subaortic lump and aortic and mitral regurgitation are the most common observed pathomorphological lesions in patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis. Patients had also conduction disturbances. Mitral regurgitation is present in AS patients but not as often as - aortic regurgitation. Continuation of the fibrosis of the subaortic tissues, and its progress to the mitral valve leaflet, constitutes the proposed pathologic mechanism.
Conclusion: Cardiac and pulmonary manifestations are commonly observed in patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis. Knowledge regarding these pathologies is increased through the years, as a result of advancements, in the field of radiologic imaging. It is very important to detect early and manage adequately all specific types of cardiac and pulmonary manifestations in AS patients, and offer thorough cardiac and pulmonary examinations to all of them.
National Cancer Hospital, Vietnam
Hoang Viet Bach is currently at Clinical Nutrition Center in National Caner Hospital, Vietnam.
A cross-sectional study was conducted with the participation of 100 patients engaging colorectal cancer at National Cancer Hospital in two consecutive years 2018-2019 in an attempt to assess the nutritional status of preoperative and postoperative colorectal cancer patients and their dietary intake during the period of seven days after the operation. The results showed that, prior to the surgery, the percentages of hospitalized patients who were inclined to contract malnutrition were 55% and 36% based on SGA tool and Albumin index, respectively. The proportions of patients suffering weigh loss within six months and one month were 80% and 79% accordingly, in which 11% patients shed more than 10% body weight. Additionally, the research also demonstrated those seven days after operation: The proportion of malnutrition patients moderately climbed by 8%, meanwhile a modest decrease of 3% was seen in the overweight rate among those patients. Besides, 92% patients experienced weight loss with the estimated average of 1.86 ±1.09kg. In the postoperative period, meticulously, the patients were given parenteral nutrition for the duration of 6.3 days on average. The time to embark on oral nutrition was 3.3± 2.4 days. The ratio of patients satisfying the suggested energy volume was disappointedly low. The majority of diets provided for surgical patients were deficient in terms of mineral and vitamins.